respond individually to each of the below three classmate disucssion post replies. For your further understanding here is the original discussion each of them were writing in reponse to. “Discussion Questions: How is the concept of homeland security defined by at least three different authors and does the difference in the definition affect the overall goal to protect the homeland? How does homeland defense overlap with homeland security and identify the challenges?”
Be engaging, add additional insight and ask a question of two within each reponse to the classmates.
Classmate Discussion Post #1:
After September 11, 2001, American Public supported the U.S Government in the fight against International Terrorism. Bringing persons who
are responsible to justice. Creating Title 10 for in-state Agents at the Federal level and allowing the agency to have Law Enforcement powers
backed up by US Patriot Act. (Cusic, 2009) Colonel Jerry Cusic explained the Homeland Defense is defined as the “protection of United States
territory, sovereignty, domestic population, and critical infrastructure through deterrence of and defense against direct attacks as well as the
management of the consequences of such attacks.” (Westby, 2007) Accounts of the people who are being defined as U.S citizens inside the
country who rationally becomes “sleeper” soldier or foreigners, who are willing to combine hostile believes and bring agony to U.S Government
and residents. Orthodox military from a foreign country with different pollical views ready to utilize traditional outlook on the solutions for disagreements. The goal to protect the country is to fight back against the people willing to bring sorrow and threats that the United States faces,
terrorism, domestic border protection, cyberspace, and resilience to disasters.
The overlap between Homeland Security and Homeland Defense attempts to determine the threat that must be fought back with law or the
military response. They both have an emergency response. Meeting the battle with law enforcement allows DOD to focus on the warfighting
responsibilities. It will enable Government to make decisions and provide both cards to the table to address a specific situation. (Goss, 2006) The
encounters that we are as Americans is facing today is much more sever and more challenging than ever before due to arrival of more
aggressive enemy.
Classmate Discussion Post #2:
The concepts of homeland security and homeland defense are evolving ones. The department has only been around since 9/11 but has changed in various ways. For instance, the National Homeland Security Strategy has three objectives: prevent terrorism, reduce vulnerability to terrorism, and minimize damage and recover if a terrorist attack occurs and since, this strategy has been amended several times. The depth of homeland security has increased and now encompasses even more. The Department of Homeland Security has defined homeland security as “A concerted national effort to ensure a homeland that is safe, secure, and resilient against terrorism and other hazards where American interests, aspirations, and way of life can thrive” (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2010, p. 13). This example shows how Homeland Security has evolved more than just preventing terrorism. Moreover, the definition is similar to but different than that offered by Noftsinger, Newbold and Wheeler (2007) who defined homeland security as “The protection of our territory, population, and critical infrastructure by: deterring and defending against foreign and domestic threats, supporting civil authorities for crisis and consequence management, and helping ensure the continuance of critical national assets” (p. 50). This week’s reading added more confusion to the definition when Jim East of the Center for Naval Analysis wrote a report and, in the report, it defines Homeland Security as, “The preparation for, prevention of, deterrence of, preemption of, defense against, and response to threats and aggression directed towards U.S. territory, sovereignty, domestic population, and infrastructure; as well as crisis management, consequence management, and other domestic civil support” (CNA, 2001, p. 2).
The definition of Homeland Defense does seem to be very similar and overlap the definition of Homeland Security. Perhaps, the Department of Defense goes more off the definition of Homeland Defense when it comes to protecting U.S. territory and the Department of Homeland Security will likely use the definition of Homeland Security when it comes to protecting the U.S. I am sure this class will go more in depth in the definitions of both and how they are similar and different.
Classmate Discussion Post #3:
While researching the various interpretations of what defines Homeland Security, I came across a quote from Janet Napolitano, former secretary of Homeland Security. Napolitano described Homeland Security as the ability to be agile in the protection and prevention of our nation against various threats (Rausnitz, 2013). What intrigued me most about the former DHS secretaries definition is she continued to explain that homeland security is the responsibility of more than just one department of government or entity. In fact, the onus was not solely that of the government as a whole but that of every individual in our nation (Rausnitz, 2013). DHS defines its mission as protecting against terrorism, securing our borders and cyberspace, responding to natural disasters, and combating human trafficking (, 2022). DHS’ definition, in my opinion, seems like a rather large responsibility for a department of 250,000 people. I believe the mission sets mentioned above, along the lines of what Secretary Napolitano is qouted saying, is a shared responsibility between the government and every American citizen. Another definition I came across suggests Homeland security is the oversight of federal, state, and local governments and the processes and policies in which they employ to safeguard against terrorism, natural disasters, and other emergencies (Duignan, 2003). Again, suggesting a shared responsibility among all levels of government. I have come to the conclusion that there is no set definition for what Homeland Security is as it continues to evolve as time progresses. Our definitions today will not reflect or effectively describe what Homeland Security will become in the future.